Ways of protection from renal stones | ASSOCIATE PROF. CENK ACAR
Ways of protection from renal stones

In our country, one individual out of 10 has urinary system disease. It is more frequent particularly in Southeast Anatolia and Aegean regions. Third and fourth decades are the ages that the disease is most frequent. It is seen in equal frequency in females and males. Furthermore, our country is one of the countries that stone disease is commonly seen in children. Urinary system stone disease has a high risk of recurrence and recurs in half of the patients within 10 years.

Stone formation becomes possible with genetic, environmental and patients-dependent (physical or chemical) factors coming together. Dietary imbalances including consuming small amounts of water, obesity, frequent urinary tract infections, anatomic deformations in urinary tract (including horseshoe kidneys), having a diet rich in proteins or consuming large amounts of salt, and lastly, some drugs, increase risk of stone formation.

Although the main target in the treatment of renal stones is to fully remove the stone impairing the renal health with interventional methods (shock-wave therapy, closed or open surgery), treatments targeting the prevention of re-formation of the stone are just important as well. Therefore, metabolic evaluations must be made for each patient to establish the causes of stone formation. Diet recommendations are given and drugs are prescribed based on the results obtained. In conclusion, In conclusion, you must ask your urologist what should be done to prevent the recurrence of the stone disease by all means and you must take the required measures.

Patients with renal stones must consume liquids so as to excrete at least 2 to 2.5 liters of urine to prevent stone formation. It must be kept in mind that reaching this amount will require consumption of more liquid during summer months. The diet recommendations to be protected from calcium oxalate stone, which is the most frequent stone type, are as follows:

• A balanced and diversified diet must be applied.
• Lots of vegetables, fruits (particularly citrus fruits) and foods containing fiber must be consumed.
• Foods containing small amounts of oxalate including eggs, lentils, white rice, peeled apples, grapes, cauliflower and squash must be consumed more.
• Calcium-containing milk and dairy products (daily amount must not exceed 1000 milligrams) absolutely must not be stopped. Stopping them will increase the risk of stone formation.
• The amount of salt in the diet must be reduced (3-5 g).
• Consumption of protein rich in animal meat must be reduced. Avocado, cauliflower and green peas can be eaten instead.
• Controlling your body weight (body mass index must be between 18 and 25 kg/m2) and regular exercising will decrease the stone formation risk.

In conclusion, renal stone disease is one of the most frequent diseases in our country and it leads to impair the kidney functions seriously because of the adverse conditions. Individuals with stone disease in their history must be checked by urologists regularly and prescribing treatments to prevent stone formation will reduce the renal failure risk significantly.